Dandelion Wine – Part 3 Bottling!

First and foremost – Happy Herb Day!

Part 3 of making Dandelion Wine nearly completes my series. The last installation won’t take place for months out – that is when we will enjoy the fruits (or flowers?) of our labor.

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After nearly 3 weeks the wine finally stopped bubbling and fermenting. The first two weeks were none stop bubbles and my airlock was constantly jostling around inside its container. At the 2 and half week mark there was a significant decrease in the bubble action and for a couple of days it nearly fooled us into thinking it was done.

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The importance of it being completely done fermenting lies in the fact that if we bottle it while still under pressure we could risk exploding the bottles. This tid bit does actually come from direct experience. My husband and I were playing around with making Nettle Soda (blog post to come about that!) and in order to not make it so alcoholic we only let it ferment for a day or so then put it in the fridge to stop the process. For whatever reason 3 or 4 exploded outside and inside of the fridge. Glass shrapnel is kind of a safety hazard.

Luckily we waited until we saw no more bubbles for an entire day before making the decision to bottle.

We didn’t have any wine bottles and I was too lazy to get some. Instead we used some of our beer bottles with either disposable caps or with a latch.

Wash and sterilize the bottles in the dishwasher using the hottest setting if possible. Remove the airlock from the wine jug and using a funnel, gently pour the liquid into the clean bottle.

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There is a lot of sediment at the bottom of the jug so be sure not to swish it around as we don’t want that in our finished product. Cap all the bottles (or cork if you are using wine bottles) and label. Be sure to add the date as well since these will not be drunk for quite some time.

I am going to wait until at least the winter solstice before opening one of them. Dandelion Wine ages very well and becomes more complex and flavorful over time. Right now mine smells pretty yeasty and I hope that will work itself out in time. I also think it is going to be quite alcoholic – but we will see. Here is a very interesting blog from a winery whose family has been making Dandelion Wine for many years – Bellview’s Blog.

Happy waiting!

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Lilac Flowers – an Edible and Medicinal Treat

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Lilac shrubs have always been one of my favorite signs of spring. Growing up in Eastern Oregon we wouldn’t see the blooms until at least May, but here in the Willamette Valley we are blessed seeing them bloom as early as the beginning of April. Vases filled with freshly cut lilac reminds me of family home and my grandmother who passed on her green thumb to my mother and on to me.

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My grandmother Vera Mezger circa 1940

Lilac or Syringa spp. (the common species is vulgaris) is in the olive family and is native to the Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe. People emigrating from Europe brought the shrub to plant in their gardens in order to savor a piece of home. Here out west pioneers brought lilacs with them during the 1800’s and now you may find lilac that grows nearly wild in abandoned lots and homesteads.

Lilac fragrance is wonderfully intoxicating however it is very difficult to capture the scent and only until recently is there even a true essential oil made from the flowers.

The flowers are edible and have some medicinal qualities. I have to say eating even a single flower raw is a flavor exploding experience with slight astringency (drying to tissues), almost bitter, and very floral. I would say these are best for garnishes and edible flower displays on pastries rather than whole meals.

Medicinal uses are still a gray area when it comes to just the flower. Most resources that I have found (random blogs, pfaf.org, A Modern Herbal) list that the medicinal benefits of Lilac come from the leaves and fruit. Apparently used as a tea or infusion historically it has been used as a anti-periodic. Anti-periodic basically means that it stops the recurrence of disease such as malaria. There has been some studies that indicate a febrifuge action which may help bring down fever.

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The flowers themselves I can only guess based on my taste observations that it will have astringent, aromatic, and perhaps a little bitter qualities.

Astringents tighten, draw, and dry tissues such as skin. So a wonderful application would be a cold or warm infusion to use as a toner on the face. Or using the same method but apply to rashes, cuts, and other skin ailments.

An aromatic action causes irritation to the place that it is touching (think GI tract) and irritation brings blood flow and blood flow equals healing! Eating the flowers raw may help with gastric issues such as flatulence or constipation. Making an herbal infused oil may be a great way to capture the aromatics for healing purposes and to make your own fragrance oil.

At the end of the blog I have included some links to great recipes to try with lilacs. I decided to try my hand at two of them that I will share. Lilac honey and lilac infused oil.

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Lilac Honey

Jar size of choice (1/2 pint, pint, quart etc.)
Local, pure honey

Fill jar with freshly picked flowers with a little room at the top. Pour over honey to the top and cap. Allow to infuse for at least 6 weeks. No need to strain afterwards – eat the flowers along with the honey! Great for adding to recipes, spreading on bread, or adding to teas.

Lilac Infused Oil

Jar size of choice (1/2 pint, pint, quart etc.)
Carrier Oil – Olive Oil, Jojoba, or Sweet Almond Oil are options
Optional – Vitamin E Oil for preservation

Fill jar with wilted flowers (make sure the flowers are as dry as possible to discourage rancidity). Cover with carrier oil and cap. Allow to infuse for up to 6 weeks. After 6 weeks strain and use in salve formulations or as a base for an aroma oil. Try combining with Lavender, Patchouli, or Jasmine Essential Oils.

Here are some ideas for using lilacs in cooking from other recipes online:

Lilac Jelly
Lilac Wine
Lilac Liqueur/Cordial
Lilac Infused Blueberry Syrup
Lilac Ice Cream

One more point of interest. Lilac wood is supposed to be one of the densest in Europe and has been historically used to make musical instruments such as pipes or flutes. We had to cut down one of our lilac shrubs I am sad to say, however we kept all the branches. I will choose one to make a pipe (hopefully one day soon) and will describe the process in another blog post.

Stop and smell the flowers!

Making Dandelion Wine – Part 2

Addendum to Supply List
Candy Thermometer (optional but handy)

Straining Infusion After 3 Day Soak

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It’s time to strain the future wine after allowing it to infuse for three full days. Now you will need to grab:

Medium Size Cook Pot
Strainer
Cotton Cloth
Ladle

I have a great large sized strainer that I usually use when I am making jam however the mesh size is still too large so I lined the strainer with the cotton tea towel. You might need another person to help you pour out the infusion through the strainer and into the cook pot since stoneware crocks are pretty heavy. I think I actually ladled out the first half to make it lighter so I didn’t spill it all over the counter. Once the entire solution was poured through the strainer and cloth I used the towel to squeeze the remaining juice out of the flower bits and composted the leftover mass. (FYI my white tea towel is now stained a lovely shade of yellow)

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Heating the Mixture

This section you will need:
1 large (or 2 small) Oranges
1 Lemon
Dried Ginger
Liquid Wine Yeast (I used Wyeast)
Candy Thermometer
Stirring Spoon
2 pounds sugar

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Bring the cooking pot to the stove and start heating up the solution. While the pot was heating I sliced the orange and lemon into small thin slices, rind and all, and added to the solution while stirring. Then I added the teaspoon of dried ginger and stirred again.

Lastly, I added the 2 pounds of sugar and stirred well until it was mostly dissolved. After speaking with an employee at one of our local fermentation stores we decided to go with using Dextrose for our sugar. Dextrose is pure glucose derived from plants (usually corn) and does not add any additional flavors to the wine that cane sugar or honey tends to do.

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I put the lid on the pot and turned it up a bit more so that it would come to a boil. Once at a rolling boil allow mixture to continue a slow (almost simmering) boil for 20 minutes. Don’t let it get out of control like I did as my boil ended up being more like an intense churning – a simmer is fine.

After 20 minutes I turned off the heat and allowed it to cool a bit before restraining again back into the stone crock. I would recommend using the cotton towel again so that the bits of ginger doesn’t get into the solution. I did not do that and so I have some bits in my fermenting wine.

Pitching the Yeast

Pitching yeast simply means adding yeast to the juice or infusion. Allow the infusion to cool which may take up to an hour to get to a cool enough temperature for the yeast to thrive. This is where the candy thermometer may come in handy to get the temperature down to a specific degree. I had some difficulty determining what was the best temperature to pitch yeast. Some say 60-70 degrees F while others talked about pitching at higher temperatures for different results. I decided to stick with the round number of no higher than 100 degrees F and waited until the thermometer registered 100 or below.

We got a wine yeast packet from the fermentation store that was also recommended by the employee. This was kept in the refrigerator until we were ready then it requires activating the yeast by slapping the bag so that it begins to mix and activate. Each yeast mixture or types of yeast are different so just follow the instructions on the bag. Add the necessary amount of yeast and stir.

Let the Fermentation Begin!

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I really wanted to get away with not having to get a carboy and airlock, mainly because I was lazy and didn’t want to pay for it. So for the first couple of days we just covered the crock with a plate that fit completely over the top so that limited air would get in but the gases could still escape. I finally broke down realizing that I did not want to risk getting wild yeast and other contaminates into my wine and so found a gallon size glass carboy and airlock kit for under $30.00.

The wine can bubble and ferment for as short as a week or for as much as 3 weeks. You will know it is done when it stops its bubbling. So far my wine has been bubbling for a week and half and has barely slowed down at all.

Stayed tuned for part 3 – bottling!

Making Dandelion Wine – Part 1

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Dandelion Wine is the spring classic beverage for wild food and wine lovers alike. For the past 5 years I have been telling myself “This is the year I will try my hand at wine!”, and then the Dandelion Flowers fade away with late spring and my window for gleaning has passed. I am pleased to announce that I have beaten the procrastinator and I did it.

Google has no shortage of variations on wine recipes so I wanted to record my own experience with some tips that would have been helpful for me in the beginning.

Supplies

2 gallon stone crock
Cotton tea towel or cotton muslin cloth (large enough to cover opening of crock)
Medium sized strainer
8 quart (at least) pot
Basket/bowl
1 gallon or larger carboy and airlock
Empty wine bottles with corks or beer bottles with caps

Ingredients

1 gallon dandelion flower petals
1 large orange and 1 lemon
2 pounds sugar (white, brown, honey, or dextrose)
1 package of yeast (wine yeast – follow directions on package)
1 tsp dried ginger

Begin by collecting the flower heads of Dandelions. The first step of this process really only needs the crock, flowers, and water so you have a few days to get the other items together.

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Harvesting Dandelion Flowers

It’s not as simple as just pulling off the heads from the stem! The trick is to get only the yellow petals and not (or as little) as the green sepals as possible because the green parts are quite bitter and will alter the flavor of the wine. My husband and I found two different ways to do this. The first way is mine. With my harvesting basket in hand I go out on sunny days when the flowers are in full bloom.

Side note – the Asteraceae Family have many sun loving plants including the Dandelion. They will actually open in the morning and close up at night. The fancy term for it is “sleep of plants”.

After popping off as many heads as I can in a few minutes with my basket I then grab another bowl to throw the discarded flower bits. Using my finger nails to slice the flower down the middle so that it will open flat I pinch off the petals pulling it away from the head of the flower until nothing is left but the green parts. FYI your hands will get very yellow and sticky!

Matt on the other hand used scissors (nice kitchen shears) to cut the green sepals and lower portions off leaving just the petals. His lack of fingernails made it difficult for the pinch and pull method.

It takes a lot of time and patience to get a full gallon of flower petals so my solution was to gather each evening after I came home from work and put them in a gallon size zip lock then froze the entire bag. It took me probably about 5 days to gather enough during the week then freezing to fill the entire bag full. I am lucky to have plenty of Dandelions in my yard to yield several batches of wine if so inclined. Do be sure you are harvesting from a place that is free of chemicals such as pesticides or herbicides.

Ants love Dandelions and seem to be a major pollinator. We found that if we came to a bunch of flowers crawling with ants to just leave the bowl full of freshly harvested flowers outside so that the ants disperse on their own. Formic acid (from the ants) will probably not be a great additive to the wine.

Once I gathered the full gallon of flowers I emptied the bag into my 2 gallon crock then boiled about a gallon and a half of water. Pour the boiling water over the flowers, stir, and cover with the cotton cloth. Allow the petals to infuse for 3 days.

This concludes part 1 of making Dandelion Wine. Keep an eye out for part 2!

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Weed Eater

March in the Northwest means the grass starts growing once again and the weeds pop out. I am thrilled to see my old friends popping their heads out once again to say hello. After the winter doldrums of less than exciting vegetable choices behold the spring nutrition of our backyard weeds.

The other day I made myself a “Wild Greens Pita Sandwich” of Dandelion leaf and flower and Peppercress.

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See if you can find some of these great edibles in your yard. My goal is to add a wild food to my meals at least once a day. Tonight I made a salad of Dandelion Leaf, Peppercress, and Nipplewort and topped it with Poppy Seeds, Nettle Vinegar, and Olive Oil.

DandelionTaraxacum officinale
http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Taraxacum+officinale

NipplewortLapsana communis
http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lapsana+communis

CleaversGalium spp. http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Galium+spurium

PeppercressLepidium spp. http://pfaf.org/user/DatabaseSearhResult.aspx

First Mini-Harvest of Stinging Nettle on the First of March!

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It was the inaugural day of harvesting Stinging Nettle for the season. Here in the Willamette Valley the nettles are still small – probably no taller than 10 inches at the most. But harvesting the top part of the leaves above a node is a perfect way to ensure more will grow during the season.

My co-worker told me a wonderful way of continual harvest during the season. He goes out every couple of weekends to harvest then comes home to blanche and freeze the greens for preservation. This way he has plenty throughout the summer and into the next winter of exquisite plant goodness.

After coming home today I snipped off all the leaves from the fibrous stem and plopped them in a pot. I put a small amount of water in the bottom and turned on the heat so that they would steam and wilt. Then I will put them in a freezer bag and add throughout the season. The stems, being too fibrous, I will save in a mason jar and add Apple Cider Vinegar as I go. Nettle Vinegar is an excellent medicine and food addition.

Along my harvest walk today I was just giddy seeing all the other beauties popping up to say hello:

Oso Berry flowers and leaves
English Daisy flowers
Trillium or Wake Robin – just beginning to bud and unfurl
Chickweed (which by the way is mixed with the Nettle in the picture)
Cleavers
Waterleaf
First leaves of Bleeding Heart
and so much more.

Happy Pre-Spring!!

Holiday Herbal Gifts by Feral Botanicals

Once again I have made my products to sell for the holidays. Generally I keep them around throughout the year as gifts or for people in need. This is the only time I will have extra product made to help people with their local, herbal, holiday shopping! Take a look at some of my new and old creations. To purchase you can leave a comment with your interest and I will get back to you or contact me directly if you have my personal contact information. I can take check, credit, or cash!

Ahem Herbal Throat Spray – for people who love their voice

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Feral Botanicals Ahem! Herbal Throat Spray is my tincture-based spray for minor ailments of the throat and voice.
Singing, acting, and teaching is what I do on a daily basis and as luck may have it I am afflicted with recurring laryngitis and other minor throat problems.  I wanted to find a recipe that used the healing power of herbs to soothe, heal, and keep my voice healthy and strong.
The botanicals include: Cottonwood buds, Lavender flowers, Marshmallow root, Osha root, Peppermint leaf, and Tall Sagebrush leaves.  All plants were either sustainably wild-harvested by me or purchased organically.  The botanicals were infused in either Potato Vodka, Scotch Whiskey, or Brandy.  To finish off the recipe I added Organic Peppermint flavor for a refreshing, tingly feeling.
Uses:  dry scratchy throat, for laryngitis, for performers, sore throats, soothe infections, and for general every day use.
Comes in 1 and 2oz glass bottles with plastic sprayer. 
Price:  2 oz $14.00  1oz $7.00

Herbal Pitch Incense – entirely Wild-Harvested in Oregon

Pitch Incense

Feral Botanicals Herbal Pitch Incense is my only product that is made completely from harvested materials.

All of the ingredients in the incense was harvested from around Oregon – the pine and fir pitch, ceanothus spp. leaves, California mugwort leaves, and sagebrush leaves are from Eastern Oregon.  The lavender flowers and pennyroyal flowers were harvested from my garden in Eugene.
The incense is made into nickel-sized nuggets and is packaged in 4oz metal tins.  Each tin contains 12 grams of nuggets and 2 charcoal incense disk wrapped in recycled foil.
Price:  $10.00 each

Herbal Smoking Mixture

smokingblend

Loose leaf herb blend of organic catnip, organic peppermint, organic sage, organic uva ursi as well as wild harvested pedicularis spp. and mullein cut and mixed by hand. Great for rolling cigarettes or in pipes. The blend is wonderful as an everyday calming smoke or can be used to help with minor lung issues. Comes in clear vegetable cellulose bags.

Price: $3.00 for a 1/4 ounce

Chocolate Lip Balm – All Natural and Nearly Edible Lip Balm

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Time for something truly decadent! In conjunction with my father-in-law’s chocolate business Chocolate Decadence I have created a balm that is not only chocolaty goodness but also completely natural without gross additives. Using organic ingredients the chocolate balm combines cocoa butter, cacao powder, and a chocolate flavor oil to make a smooth nourishing salve. Smells like chocolate but only has the faintest of taste and no sugar so that it stays on your lips rather than your tongue!
Price: $3.00 each

Liquid Sunshine Balm – Another Herbal Lip Balm

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My newest lip balm! Using St. John’s wort as the base oil this balm is perfect to help protect from minor sun exposure and to nourish burned/chapped lips. Liquid Sunshine is scented with sweet orange and lemon essential oils.

Price: $3.00 each

Mint Balm – An Herbal Lip Balm

Feral Botanicals Mint Balm applies smoothly with a refreshing spearmint flavor.  All of my balms are hand made right down to harvesting the plants to make the oils.  The peppermint and spearmint leaves were harvested from my garden and infused in almond and sunflower oils.  The balm is hardened with bees wax and its calming scent is made with spearmint essential oil.  The lip balm tube is 85% post-consumer waste recycled plastic and the label is 100% recycled paper.  .15 ounces (4.25g)
Price:  $3.00

Herbal First Aid Stick Balm – A balm for everyday cuts and scrapes

Feral Botanicals First Aid Stick Balm comes in a lip balm tube so it can be easily carried with you.  All of my balms are hand made right down to harvesting the plants to make the oils.  The St. John’s wort flowers were safely harvested by hand and the Calendula flowers were organically purchased and infused in olive and sunflower oils.  The balm is hardened with bees wax and scented with Lavender essential oil for added medicinal benefit.  The lip balm tube is 85% post-consumer waste recycled plastic and the label is 100% recycled paper.  .15 ounces (4.25g)  Carry in your first aid kit or simply in your pocket.  Can be used for basic scrapes and cuts, insect bites, sunburns, and other minor wounds. 
Price:  $3.00

Herbal First Aid Kit – A kit designed for basic first aid needs

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I have been wanting to put together a simple herbal first aid kit for years! The Herbal First Aid Kit combines conventional first aid with an herbal twist. Each kit comes in a hip pouch that can be threaded through a belt in black, green, or camo colors. Each contains:
3 Emergen-C Packets
5 Latex Free Bandages
1 Pair Latex Free Gloves
First Aid Stick Balm
1/2 Lavender Essential Oil
Kava Kava Root Tincture
Strains to Sprains Oil
Anti Bacterial Spray
4 Black Tea Bags
Plantain Leaf
1 Cotton Muslin Bag
1 Plastic Bag
1 Saftey Pin
Utility Bag
Information Card about how each item can be used
Price: $37.00

Strains to Sprains Oil – For muscle, nerve, and skin ailments

Strains to Sprains

Strains to Sprains oil is perfect for those first aid and healing needs. I love combining this trio (wild harvested St. John’s wort, cottonwood buds, and organic arnica flowers) to help with the pain and healing of muscular/skeletal issues. The oil is stored in a roll top 1oz glass bottle for easy application and no leaky mess.

Price:$7.00 each

Thyme to Clean – vinegar-based herbal cleaning spray

Thyme 2 Clean front

Feral Botanicals Thyme to Clean! is a safe, non-toxic, down-home way to clean your home.  By harnessing the natural power of vinegar I infused my garden grown thyme (Thymus vulgaris) with both white and apple cider vinegar.  It is wonderfully scented with both rosemary and lavender essential oils for that old fashioned ‘clean’ smell (newer products now also include organic thyme essential oil).  Thyme to Clean! is safe on most surfaces from counters, windows, stoves, sinks, bathtubs, and tile/linoleum floors.  A great way to help kill mold, mildew, and harmful germs.  16 ounces. 
Price:  $12.00